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Scientists discovered a gas called phosphine in Venus’ harsh acid clouds, indicating that microbes may be inhabiting Earth’s hospitable neighborhoods, a sign of possible extraterrestrial life.

The researchers did not find real-life forms but noted that phosphine on Earth is produced by bacteria that grow in the oxygen-starved environment. An international scientific team first detected phosphine using the James Clark Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii and confirmed it using the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (Alma) radio telescope in Chile.

Jane Greaves, an astronomer at Cardiff University in Wales, the lead author of the research, published in the journal Nature Astronomy, said “I was shocked.”

The existence of extraterrestrial life is one of the main questions of science. Scientists have used probes and telescopes to search for “signatures of life” – indirect signs of life – on other planets and moons in our solar system and beyond.

“As far as we know about Venus, the most reliable interpretation of phosphine is as wonderful as it sounds,” said Clara Sousa-Silva, co-author of Molecular Astronomy and Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

“As an explanation for our discovery, I must emphasize that life should be the last place as always,” Clara Sousa-Silva added. “This is important because if it were phosphine if it were life, it would mean that we are not alone.

Phosphine – a phosphorus atom composed of three hydrogen atoms – is highly toxic to humans.

Earth-based telescopes, such as those used in this research, help scientists study chemistry and other properties of astronomical objects.

Phosphine was found to be 20 parts per billion in the atmosphere of Venus, which is a trace concentration. The researchers studied non-biological sources such as volcanoes, meteorites, lightning, and various chemical reactions, but nothing was possible, Greaves said. Research confirms the existence of life or finds an alternative interpretation.

Venus is Earth’s closest planetary neighbor. Similar in structure but slightly smaller than Earth, it is the second planet to come from the Sun. Earth is the third. Venus is covered in a thick, toxic atmosphere that traps heat. The surface temperature reaches 880 degrees Fahrenheit (471 degrees Celsius), which is hot enough to melt lead.

“I can only speculate that life could exist on Venus if it really is. No life can survive on the surface of Venus because it is not entirely hospitable, even biochemicals are completely different from ours,” said Sousa-Silva. But a long time ago, Venus It may have life on its surface before the runaway greenhouse effect makes most of the planet completely uninhabitable. “

Acidity test

Some scientists suspect that the high clouds of Venus, with mild temperatures around 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 degrees Celsius), may contain aerial microbes that can withstand extreme acidity. These clouds are 90% sulfuric acid. Earth microbes are unable to retain that acidity.

“If it were microbes, they would have access to some sunlight and water and may live in liquid droplets to prevent dehydration themselves, but they would need some unknown mechanism to prevent corrosion by acid,” Greaves said

venus venus planet life on venus alien phospine
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On Earth, microorganisms in the “anaerobic” environment – ecosystems that do not believe in oxygen – produce phosphine. These include sewage plants, swamps, paddy fields, swamps, lake sediments, and many animal excreta and intestinal tract. Non-biological phosphine also arises in some industrial systems.

To make phosphine, earth bacteria take phosphate from minerals or biological materials and add hydrogen.

“We have done everything we can to explain this discovery without the need for a biological process. With our current knowledge of phosphine, and Venus and geochemistry, we cannot explain the existence of phosphine in the clouds of Venus. It does not mean life. This means that some attractive process produces phosphine, and more Our understanding of Venus requires work, ”said Sousa-Silva.

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Written by Rohit G | Updated: September 4, 2020 09:53:02 pm

Plastics on Marine life in Earth’s oceans by 2050.

Plastic is found everywhere, especially in the form of Bags and Covers. Such bags consistently make the top-ten list of plastic waste items collected during the annual Coastal Clean-up Day led by the non-profit environmental group Ocean Conservancy. This implies that the mass production of P-Bags may end up being one of humanity’s biggest regrets.

Besides, Plastic made Water bottles, food wrappers, bottle caps, and straws, these wastes are creating an ocean “wave” that, researchers believe, will result in the mass of ocean plastics becoming greater than the mass of marine life in Earth’s oceans by 2050.

The World Economic Forum in its Annual Report in 2016, stated that worldwide use has risen 20-fold in the past 50 years. At this rate, it is predicted to double again in the next 20 years. It is estimated that by the year 2050, we will use three times as much as we used in 2014. In addition to this, we all are very well aware that plastic can take up to 1,000 years to decompose in landfills. If things continue to be like this, it is highly possible that the Earth and all of its life, including humans, will be drowning in plastic in the future.

Research on Plastic Pollution

Besides water bodies such as oceans, seas, lakes, and rivers, the P-Waste is affecting life, ecosystems, and us. It has been documented that more than 180 species of animals have been believed to ingest the toxic debris, according to the British Antarctic Survey, including birds, fish, turtles, and marine mammals such as whales. Researchers from the Medical University of Vienna and Environment Agency Austria found Microplastics, particles of plastic smaller than 5 millimeters in stool samples from all of their human test subjects.

A research team from Germany is warning us about the adverse and harmful impact of Microplastics in soils, sediments, and freshwater could have a long-term negative effect on such ecosystems. According to the results based on their research, They came to the conclusion that terrestrial pollution is much higher than marine pollution – estimated at four to 23 times higher, depending on the environment. It is a known fact that when these toxic particles break down, they gain new physical and chemical properties, increasing the risk that they will have a toxic effect on organisms.

The larger the number of potentially affected species and ecological functions, the more likely it is that toxic effects will occur and will have a massively adverse effect on all living organisms.

Impact on all living organisms

Therefore we must take a stand and ensure that the usage of Polythene bags, bottles, Polythenein any form, or size is brought to nil for the betterment of the planet and the million organisms inhabiting it. We must all in our small ways contribute towards the eradication of plastic which will have an enriching impact on all living organisms.

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Written by LeBert Sam | Updated: August 12, 2020 7:53:02 pm

The invisible force around our earth made the existence of life possible on earth. This invisible force is nothing but the magnetic field which has been the guardian of the earth. The earth’s magnetic field is generated from the molten iron core, which is 3000km below our surface.

Pole reversal is happening!

The magnetic field at the surface is 0.25 – 0.65 Gauss, where at the center of the core the field is estimated to be 50 Gauss (Typical Iron magnet is 100 Gauss). This magnetic field forms protective shielding around our earth from the magnetic north pole to the south pole which protects us from the harmful radiations coming from the outer space.

This magnetic field is constantly undergoing changes in its strength and direction. A geomagnetic pole reversal is the shifting of the magnetic north pole to the magnetic south pole and vice versa. The magnetic field reversal (pole reversal) is estimated to be happening a few times every million years.

You may wonder how scientists are estimating the changes in the magnetic field, which happened a million years ago. The clue exists in old sedimentary rocks and minerals. During the formation of these rocks, the magnetic field direction of the atoms in the rocks can lock in the direction of the earth’s magnetic field. By analyzing the old rocks scientist can effectively study the behavior of the earth’s magnetic field at that time.

The wild changes in the convective molten outer iron core are the main reason for the Pole reversal event. Previously, paleomagnetic studies have estimated that a rapid shift of 1° /year of magnetic field shift is occurring. But, a recent paper published in nature communications has estimated a 10 times larger shift (10° /year )that the previous study.

The research team led by Christopher Davies, Associate professor, University of Leeds, used a computer-based model to stimulate the field shift based on the field generation process. They compiled the measured magnetic field data of sediments and rocks spanning the last 100,000 years. The fastest change in the magnetic field is associated with the locally weak field. During the pole reversal process, the magnetic field lines will be more complex and weak even there are possibilities of the formation of multiple magnetic poles.

Why should we be worried?

Nowadays, satellites are used to track the changes in the earth’s magnetic field, which will give us new insight. A magnetic reversal is a normal process in the geology of the earth, which won’t pose any threat to the life forms. Humans managed to survive a short (or failed) pole reversal called the ‘Laschamp event,’ which happened 41,000 years ago.

Since our modern life is dependent on electronic equipment, such an event during our time would cause a blackout. During the reversal, the charged particles from the outer space can easily enter our earth’s atmosphere and can disrupt the function of our satellites, electronics power grids. Just imagine our world going into total blackout. This would create trillions of dollar loss to all the countries. This event may unlikely to happen during our lifetime, but it will happen in the next thousands of years for sure.

Watch the video – First time in history: Detecting the earth’s magnetic field in 586 BCE

So what do you think about it? Is there any rapid pole reversing coming on our time? This question will remain unanswered until we discover more about this event. Researchers around the globe are looking for a possible explanation using computer simulations. We still have a long way to go.

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